Cornell: Selections from the Anthropology Collections; All of the designs on the face are carved into the wood and the carved incisions are then burned to give the designs color. Aside from the carved nose, eyes, eyebrows, ears, and mouth (with 7 top and 6 bottom teeth), there is also a carved line from the mouth to the chin, a series of spots on either side of the mouth, and a carved circle with an x on each cheek. There are two lines of spots next to each ear and the face is encircled with a carved, burnt line. The hair is sewn onto the top of the head above the forehead, over a small basketry frame. There are three rows of the hair fibers whose coloring is blackish and purple bark string in varying thicknesses. It is attached to the wood mask and basketry frame with commercial looking cordage. The mask is worn by the makishi dancers in the Mukanda ceremonies (circumcision rites) of the Ndembu tribe. It does not have a specific name. Judging from the bark string neck, this mask was most likely worn along with a full costume of the same material.
Ndembu (African people)--Rites and Ceremonies
Turner, Victor W., 1920-1983