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Oral History ProgramThe State Historical Society of Missouri 2007Collection C3929 Politics in Missouri a.c. 323-326An Interview withDr. Merrill Townleyat his home inChamois, Missouri19 July 2007interviewed by Rebecca RoseNOTICE1) This material is protected by copyright law (Title 17, U.S. Code). It may not be cited without acknowledgment to The Oral History Program of the State Historical Society of Missouri and the Western Historical Manuscript Collection, a Joint Collection of the University of Missouri and the State Historical Society of Missouri.Citations should include: [name of interviewee], [name of the interviewer], [date and place of interview], [audio recording or transcript], and [where it can be found, for example, The Oral History Program of the State Historical Society of Missouri, Politics in Missouri Oral History Project].2) Reproductions of this transcript are available for reference use only and cannot be reproduced or published in any form (including digital formats) without written permission from the Western Historical Manuscript Collection.3) Use of information or quotations from any Politics in Missouri Oral History Project transcript indicates agreement to indemnify and hold harmless the University of Missouri, the State Historical Society of Missouri, their officers, employees, and agents, and the interviewee from and against all claims and actions arising out of the use of this material.For further information, contact:Western Historical Manuscript Collection23 Ellis LibraryUniversity of MissouriColumbia, MO 65201-5149PREFACEThe interview was taped on Maxell COM-60 audio cassettes (normal bias), using a Marantz PMD-222 manual recorder and a Shure VP64 omnidirectional microphone placed on a tripod. There are a periodic background sounds that occasionally interrupt the interview, but the recording is of generally high quality.The following transcript represents a faithful rendering of the entire oral history interview. Minor stylistic alterations--none of factual consequence--have been made as part of a general transcription policy. Any use of brackets [ ] indicates editorial insertions not found on the original audio recordings. Parentheses () are used to indicate laughter or a spoken aside evident from the speaker's intonation. Quotation marks [ ] indicate speech depicting dialogue, or words highlighted for the usual special purposes (such as indicating irony). Double dashes [--] and ellipses [ . . . ] are also used as a stylistic method in an attempt to capture nuances of dialogue or speech patterns. Words are italicized when emphasized in speech. Although substantial care has been taken to render this transcript as accurately as possible, any remaining errors are the responsibility of the editor, Rebecca Rose. _____________________________________________________________MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Rose 1RR: [This is Rebecca Rose with the] State Historical Society of Missouri. Its July 19, 2007 and Im in Chamois, MO with Dr. Merrill Townley. Chamois, not Morrison?MT: Its Chamois.RR: Ok. Well, can you start by telling me something about your early life?MT: Well, I was born in this house, and lived here until I went off to college and the Army, and [I] went to a one room school, Schawnee Creek, and its about two miles up here. Since then its burned, butin fact, the last yearthe year that I graduated, we had three students. We had five students, and three of us graduated and then they closed the school so, youve heard of the story of burnin the school down to get the kid outa school, well that almostbut that was about the time of consolidation of theand the end of the rural schools. Course, then I went to Chamois to high school.RR: What year where you born?MT: 1934RR: And, did youryou mentioned that this was a family house, did your mother and father grow up in this house then too?MT: No. They built this house in 1930, and the first three rooms that they built was sawed out of thethey cut the logs on the farm and had a sawmill right out here and they sawed thelike if they needed 2x4s well theyd saw a bunch of 2x4s and saw boards and theyd bias boxed it and this was all outa oak. You try to drive a nail in it and you cant do it anymore after seventy years or eighty almostnearly eighty years. Anyway, they built three rooms and then the year after I was born they built another room and a porch ________________________________________________________________________2 MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Roseon and then they built on in 1968 and then in [19]77 when we came back down to the farm, why we built this part here on it.RR: So, where were your parents from originally?MT: My dad, his home place was the adjoining place over here and this was my grandmothers home place and Ive got a picture of their wedding in 1902 out in front of the old log house over here and, but shethey didnt go very far to find their wives at that time, you know, and they were joining farms. Then she died when my dad was about seven years old and my grandpa and his sister wasI dont know, three or fourand so then he raised them about ten years before he remarried then. So, my dad was raised there and then my mother, hermy grandfather and grandmother on my mothers side came from Germany in the late 1800s and they settled down atdown around Morrison down on Baileys Creek. And then they were married in, I think 1930 or somethin like that. Right in the middle of the DepressionRR: Yeah, did they ever mention why they chose to come to this area?MT: No, you mean the German?RR: Yeah.MT: No theywell there were just a lot ofthere were a lot of people that had immigrated here from Germany and itlike even down in Hermann. Then the group that came fromcame to Loose Creek, they were allthey all came from about the same area. There were some that were Catholic and then there were some that were Evangelical or, you know, the German Evangelical Church. _____________________________________________________________MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Rose 3RR: What did your father do for a living?MT: He farmed until long in the Depression when it was gettin pretty rough and then he went to work for an insurance company and he sold insurancehe ended up selling Kansas City Life Insurance, buthe worked for a mutual insurance company in Jeff[erson] City and we always farmed.RR: I thought I had read somewhere that he was also a doctor?MT: No, he was not a doctor. We had several doctors in our family, but they were of a differentthe old man that came from Virginia in 1829 was a doctor, he went to Middlesex College at Lexington, Kentucky and went to medical school for about six months and became a doctor and then he came out here on a mule. Ive got his diaryin fact the Western Manuscripts has a copy of his diary, I gave it to em and they made a copy of it, and those are the wheels (points to a set of wheels) that were on the wagon thatwhere his wifes family came and they crossed the Mississippi at St. Louis and they lost a horse in the Mississippi River that drowned in the Mississippi River. They would drive the team and the horsesI mean, I dont know how many horses there was butbut anyway, they would swim and then the wagon would float, and thats the way they crossed the Mississippi, andthat wasanyway, then when he marriedhe knew where he was comin to and he came to this Alkire family. They had come earlier in the, oh 1818 teens, and then he came and then he married one of the daughters. And then they had I think they had somethin like eight or nine children and there were bout four, I think five boys maybe and four girls and the cemetery over herethe Townley ________________________________________________________________________4 MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Rosecemeterythe first grave in that was one of those children and they put rocks over it, they were afraid that the wolves would dig into the grave and soits the first grave that was in the Townley cemetery. Then there were several of these boys and the house that the old man John Mann built is over on the next place over here and that was the line that my family came from and, of course thats been in the family for all these years, and then another line was one of the sonsbecame a doctorand then his son became a doctor, so there wereand one of em went to awas in medical school or maybe had just graduated, but he died when he was twenty-three years old, so there were aboutI dont know, there were about three or four MDs in that that were Dr. Townleys.1 My dad figured out when I graduated from vet school that I went to school longer to become a veterinarian than any one of those did to become medical doctors. But this old Dr. W.D. [William David Townley] who died in the forties, he had practiced here for fifty years, I meanin this area. He was the last one of them.RR: Before I forget, what was name of the gentleman you were talking about who wrote the diary?MT: John Mann TownleyRR: Okay. And, can you describe your father to me?MT: Well, he was just a little, short, fat, jolly guy. Thats all. He was just pretty jovial, he took things prettyhe was a people person.RR: What about your mother?1 MD stands for Doctor of Medicine. _____________________________________________________________MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Rose 5MT: She was more reserved. She was a stay-at-homer. Thats a picture of her up there too, in her older days, and she was a typical frontier mother. I mean, she canned and gardened and cooked and sewed and did the things that women back then did.RR: Did she also help out on the farm as far asMT: She never did do a lot of work out on the farm; however, my dad had an office in St. Louis and theythe fella that he worked for that owned the company asked him to go down and manage that office and, he had a house out in Ladue and he said, You can live in that. My mom and I decided that we didnt wanta move to St. Louis, so for all several years I guess, probably nearly twenty years, he drove back and forth. He did work in between, I mean, heback then they used to deliver beneficiary checks whenever somebody died, why, they would take the check to em and he would leavesometimes on Sunday evening, sometimes Monday morning and then he would come home on a Friday. Sometimes hed come home on a Thursday if he had quite a bit of work to do around here then so. But, that wasand then when that mutual insurance company wentgot soldthe mutual insurance companys were goin outa business and theyd become old line insurances so hethen he went to work for Kansas City Life then, which is an old line.RR: So, how many siblings do you have?MT: Im the only child.RR: So did that mean that you had a lot extra responsibility then if your father was ________________________________________________________________________6 MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca RoseMT: Yeah, I started out to tell that my mother do a lot out on the farm back then, supervisin me, you know and helpin me to do things, you knowdo feedin and things like that.RR: So, can you tell me something more about Schawnee Creek Schoolyou mentioned it earlier.MT: Okay. Schawnee Creek School came off of the old Townley farm and they gave well there were several Schawnee Creek Schools, there was the school down in the valley just before thatwell, you didnt come that way, just at the bottom of the hill there (points), theres a pretty big house and the one section of it is log, and that was the first school, and then they built the school on top of the hill then, which come off of the Townley place. My dad went to school there so I mean it was at least back to thewell he would have been in school, he was born in 1904, and he was sixhe woulda been startin school about 1910, so it was there then and then course I went to school there then too.RR: So then, since it was built off of the old Townley farm, did your ancestors help build and run the school?MT: Well, they were, course they were on the school board a lot. My dad was on the school board; my grandpa was on the school board and other people in the neighborhood. I might tell the story though about during World War II when I was in school. Wethere were some of the kids walked back toward [highway] 89 that lived back that way and the rest of us back this way. And, so wed all walk to school together, you know, and back and forth and course, there were several ages of usI mean there were eight grades so _____________________________________________________________MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Rose 7there were some that were older and then some of us that wereI was one of the younger ones at that time. But anyway, we got to throwinthe old hill telephone lines were a community telephone and you justthey justthe community set poles and nailed these insulators on and strung the wire and had these glass insulators. Well, as boys are want to do, we started throwin rocks at those insulators. And, we broke a few, and so the school boardthere was a three man school board thenmy grandpa was on the school board. My grandpa had big ol red whiskers, he had emhe had this beard as long as I can remember but then, as he got older, why he said it got frostbit and it turned white then, butor gray, but anywaythey decided that the school board ought to come up and do a little disciplinin and so they kept those of us that walked that way after school and so they put us up on the front row and the school board was there and my grandpa was the spokesman and he could never remember that my name was Merrill, hed always call me Elmer, he was dyslexic I guess. But anyway, he started on the upper end withon oldest kids and he asked em if they had broken any insulators and, Yes sir, I did, and right on downthere were about four of us, five of us I guess, and he got down to me and he said, Elmer, he said, did you ever break any insulators? And I said, No grandpa, I couldnt hit em. And he, he couldnt control himself, he threw his head back and laughed and that was the end of the discipline. There werent any insulators broken after that either, but they were effective. But, Ill never forgetI didnt know what else to say (both laugh).RR: So, if it was a one room school, did you only have one teacher? ________________________________________________________________________8 MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca RoseMT: One teacher, yeahwe only hadI only had three different teachers. I had a teacher thatIsabel Cramer that taught me in the first grade. And then Ms. Verna Ruddy taught the second grade, and then Ms. Beulah Malan came and taught all the time from third grade on. And, this was in a period of time in the education system where times were changing and consolidating and things like that, and so they didnt think that the country schools were adequate education, you know, the powers that be in education. Well, some of our mostsome of our best leaders in all different phases of life came out of one room schools. But anyway, when I was in the seventh grade, they consolidated. They knew that there wasconsolidation was coming on, and they movedthey brought the Rost School over here and we had probably forty kids in that one room that year and then they wenttook them to Morrison. They had two roomstwo schooltwo rooms. And, so then the last yearthe next year when we graduated, why they closed the school and that was the year that they consolidated and I can tell you a story of back then. We had consolidated; you know and were part of the Chamois school district. And, my dadthe tax levy for the Schawnee Creek School district was sixty cents. When we consolidated into Chamois, it was a dollar, and that was the year that I started to High School, and my dadthey hadhere when I was six years old, I walked that two miles to school, except the year they brought Rost School over and I rode the bus, butall of those eight, all of those seven years I walked that two miles to school! And so, the law was that they had to bring a bus. A kid didnt have to walk more than one mile, and so when my dad insisted that they come and get me that one mile because he was sore _____________________________________________________________MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Rose 9because the levy had gone up forty cents and they didnt wanna close the school in the first place. But anyway, he kept me home from school the first two weeks that I was supposed to start high school until the school board determined that they was gonna come and get me that two miles, and so it was embarrassing to meI meanbut it was the principle. My dad took that as bein the principle and that was the way heand since then, Ive been turned into an agitator too, but(laughs).RR: So that was in 1948 when they closed the school then.MT: Yes, uh-huh.RR: And, in 1970 is when it actually burned down.MT: Yeah, okay.RR: The officials ruled that arson; do you know anything about what actually happened there?MT: No, I dont know much about what the situation, course that wasI was not here then, I was in school and in practice, butYeah, I dont know what happened. They sold those buildings at auction and the guy that bought itI think he paid about sixteen hundred dollars for it. Incidentally now, my cousin has recently bought the land back, so the land is part of his place now sowhere the school was.RR: And you mentioned then going to Chamois for high school. How was that different than Schawnee Creek?MT: Well, I mean, it was reallywe lived out here in the country. We were pretty isolated. We didnt get to town very often and weeven in a town of three or four hundred people, the ________________________________________________________________________10 MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Rosetown kidsthey kinda looked down on the country kids. So weit was a little different for me to mix with the town kids.RR: How many students were there in your class?MT: I dont remember, I think there bout twenty-five or somethin like that.RR: And what did the town kids then try and do to, I guess, stress the difference between country and town?MT: Well, I dont know that theythey justthis wasnt a big thing, it wasnt, but there was just a little bit of that feeling. And it wasnt everybody either, you know, I meanlike the boys, they went out and worked on the farm so theyit was some of the girls that werethought they were just a little bit more sophisticated than some of us. I mean, and we werewe were country. We didntit wasnt hard to tell thatId never owned a tie or a suit until I got my graduation suit, you know so.RR: Was Chamois really that big of a town at the time?MT: No, it hasnt changed. Its about the same size as it was.RR: What about Morrison?MT: Bout the same only Morrison is goin down hill now (phone rings).RR: So while you were in high school, did you work?MT: Worked on the farm, yeah.RR: So, that didnt pay at the time then, it was chores basicallyMT: Yeah.RR: And what did you do on the farm? _____________________________________________________________MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Rose 11MT: Well, II shouldnt say that, I did help the neighbors haul hay and things like that and there was a circle of kinfolks that worked together and, course didnt get paid for that but we worked with each other, you know, when puttin up hay and things like that. Got in on the tail end of the thrashingthe last year that they thrashed I think was, I dont know 1948-49 somewhere along in there, bout the time I was in high school.RR: So, what would a teenage boy in the 19late 1940s want to spend their money on? What was the one thing you would want to buy?MT: Oh, I dont knowI bought a car, an old cara 1937 Plymouth and bought it from the neighbors down here and started to town and I had two flat tires on it before I got to Chamois with it so (both laughing).RR: So, was that something unusual then in the 1940s to actually be able to afford to buy a car?MT: Well, yeah I dont know, yeah I guessI dont remember how much I paid for it or anything about it but that wasI did want to have a car.RR: What was a typical day like on the farm, for you as a child?MT: Oh, you just got up and did your chores and went to school and came home and did some more chores.RR: You mentioned in your book your first experience calving, or birthing a cow.MT: Yeah.RR: How old were you at the time?MT: I would say I was probably twelve maybe, somethin like that. It wasI wasnt too strong, so it was a hassle. [It] happened right down the hill here. ________________________________________________________________________12 MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca RoseRR: Can you tell me about it?MT: Oh, okay. Wecourse we only had this eighty acres here. I might tell you how this place got bigger. My dad bought the place from the old bachelor uncleshis old bachelor uncles, and they didntmy grandmother was the only one that married, so he and his sister were the only heirs. Anyway, he bought this eighty acres from him and paid eight hundred dollars for it, told me many times thatbefore he built the house and he told me many times that he didnt know if hed ever get it paid for or not. And my mother had worked in St. Louis, and before she was married and had savedI think two or three hundred dollars, or maybe more than that, but anywaywhen they got ready to build a house, why, she wanted to use that money to build a house and my dad said, no, he said, I married you, he said, Im gonna get it paid for somehow and were not gonna use your money. The banks went broke and she lost almost all of her savingsI mean ten cents on the dollar they got back or somethin like that, but anyways, that wasthats an interesting facet of the house building. Now, go back to your question again that you[END OF TAPE 1 SIDE 1]RR: I was wondering about your first experiencewell, can you actuallysince your parents went through the Great Depression, how did that affect your life? _____________________________________________________________MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Rose 13MT: Oh, it made you very conservative. I meanthats the root of conservatism is when you dont have things, why, you make do with what you got and do what you have to do to survive. But anyway, he had bought this eighty acresgoes back to that originaland this was all that we had and we had a few old cows. We milked cows, sold cream and anyway, we had a couple of heifers that wed saved for cows and course they were breed probably younger than they shoulda been and I couldnt find this one heifer. And, wed pretty wellon eighty acres you pretty well kept track of em, you know, and so I was lookin around and I was supposed find her and I found her down there and she was down calvin and she was smaller than she ought to be; she had horns. I couldnt apparently, I believe it wasthe presentation was right you knowthe head was between the feet, so I went off down in the woods where wed thrown the hay bail strings and kinda had to pull on em to see if theyd rotten and that they were strong enough to use. And I put them on the front feet and got back there and put my foot against the rump and was pullin and then she give a kick and she throwed me back and did this last strain and we pulled the calfand the calf come on out then and I ended up back in the brush in the briars and. What I described was pretty well exactly the way it happened. And then, course I didnt know about prolapses then but, that waslater on I woulda been afraid of that toobut anyway, she didnt, but anyway, she was layin on her side though, so I had to get her up on her, and so I got a hold of her horns and I pulled her around and drug the calf around there and got him cleaned up and she started lickin him and takin care of him, and so that was my first experience with dystocia. ________________________________________________________________________14 MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca RoseRR: Would you say that that had anything to do with your decision to choose veterinary medicine?MT: Oh certainly, sure, I alwaysalways enjoyed workin with livestock.RR: Was there any specific instance that reallywhere you actually, you just knew that thats what you had to do with your life?MT: No, I dont think I had any certainthe one thing that, of course I likedI always enjoyed writing in English classes and one teacher had what she called daily observations and I enjoyed writing those things as I was goin to school and around the farm and observing what was goin on around and I enjoyed that. I had considered law school, considered medical school, and I did enjoy theI liked workin out in the country so I mean that was probably the reason that I chose veterinary medicine.RR: Well, Im sure that your parents had certain expectations for you, all parents seem to. What did they want you to do whenever youMT: They never did encourage, you know, tell me anything. In fact, they probably wondered, how in the world does he think hes gonna get a college education. And thats probably right. I didnt know either but I just took it on faith and run out of money several times. I dont know if I told you how I went through school or not, but I didnt have enough money to start school the year after I graduated. When I graduated in the spring from high school in the spring and I didnt have enough money to start at the university that fall semester, but I saved my money and I went in the second semester and I got enough to get through there and then I went throughwent the next semester, that _____________________________________________________________MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Rose 15fall semester, and ran out of money again. I didnt have enough money to go to school, so I dropped out, and I stayed out two years and a half. In that time, I was raisin hogs and had quite a few hogs at that time, so I saved enough money that I decidedthat I went back not that fallI skipped two years actuallyand started back in the fall and then I had saved enough and could borrow the money too and so I started back and went that whole year and applied for vet school and got turned down. So, then that next year, then I went one more semester and then I was up for draft and I had joined the Army Reserves, so I went to basic training in the spring of that yearwell the summer of that year.RR: What year was it, do you remember?MT: Well, it was July of 1957. And then when I came back then I went back another semester and applied for vet school and was accepted. And then I had the four years that I was in vet school I hadthe first year I had to borrow money along in May right before the end of school and then the nextthe second year I had to start borrowin money back in January and February and finally the forth year, I had to borrow enough for the whole year, but I ended up owinI dont know, five [or] ten thousand dollars.RR: So, you went to school at the University of Missouri-Columbia?MT: Yes, Uh-huh.RR: And do you know what year you graduated with a DVM?2MT: 63.2 DMV stands for Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. ________________________________________________________________________16 MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca RoseRR: 63. What was it like in Columbia at the time?MT: Oh, it was a lot different than it is now, not near as manywell there were almost as many students, but there werebut it was a lotthe College of Agriculture was a homey place, I mean, we knew people pretty well, and then vet school was very close knit, I mean, you only hadback then they only took thirty students in, and so you had 120, at them most 120 students in vet school.RR: Can you think of any instances that were especially memorable from your time in college?MT: As far as what?RR: Umjustlike a dance or something thatan incident that happened in class, anything like that.MT: Oh I wouldnt--I really didnt spend a lot of time socializing. I worked I fedI did feed the cattle when they were first doin these studies on dwarfism. Dr. [William] Foley was justreceived a citation of merit this year for his work, and hes down at Auburn University now, I believe butanyway I fed those cattle and they had dwarf cattle and then had dwarf carriers and they were doin the work on that, studying that and I fed that. And I also fed the sheep for the nutrition lab and they were doin work with nitrates and they did some work with urea and this sort of thing. I enjoyed that.RR: Was that something that was a part of a class that you were taking?MT: No, it was work. I mean, you gotI think we made sixty cents an hour. And I dont know if I mentioned the story about when we were, when I was in school and the Home- Ec[onomics]. Department nutrition had athey were doin a study on lysine when they _____________________________________________________________MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Rose 17were first determining to supplement bread with lysine and part of that study wasthey got, oh vet students and research PhD3 candidates, graduates students, and things, and there were six of us on this study and the study wasNo meat and no milk. So they were trying to get Lysine, which meat and milk have lysine in them. So they were lysine deficient and the thing about it is that you could not eat anything accept what they gave ya so they knew what they werewhat was goin into your digestive system. And then you had to collect your urine and your stool and they gave us a blue bag to carry around and we were the blue bag crew and they paid us two dollars a day and our meals, so you didnt make much money, but ya sure didnt spend much either cause you werent buying snacks or anything like that, drinking soda and everything. You certainly didnt drink any beer, so, that was thethere wasI think we were on that for about six weeks. Two different timesRR: So some of your experiences then gave you practice for becoming a veterinarian yourself.MT: Oh sure.RR: Do you think it was easier in the 1960s to do that than it might be today, or do you employ veterinary students too?MT: Well, Ive been fortunate and Ive really felt a debt to everybody that supported me and Ive had someIve almost always had vet students when I was in practice in Jeff[erson City]. It was handy for em to come over from Columbia and I had a numberI almost constantly had interns or they worked for me on weekends and stuff, and Im kind of3 PhD stands for Doctor of Philosophy. ________________________________________________________________________18 MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Roseproud of the fact that one ofseveral of those have gone on to be very successful. The one [Dr. Clark Fabian] is in practice up at Sedalia and hes now our area representative to the AVMAdelegate to the AVMA from Missouri, Iowa, [and] Kansas.4 Really active in that and the acting dean of vet school now [Dr. Cecil Moore] interned with me. He went on to graduate school to become a veterinary ophthalmologist but, I mean he weve got a number ofone of the inters[, Dr. Dave Hopson,]is now the district man for the USDA program [for Missouri, Oklahoma, and Arkansas], so I mean, hesI always enjoyed havin students with me.5RR: Has the veterinary school gotten more specialized in recent years?MT: Certainly, well, one of the things thats driven it is that theyre required to take more females, now, Kansas Statethey threatened them that if they didnt take fifty percent females they were gonna take their accreditation away. We never got to that point, and of course in thewhen I was in the legislature then, we worked on gettin the new vet school, and part of that accreditationIve got a little bit of aas a conservative, Ive got a little bitand now this goes back to consolidation of the rural schools andthe accreditation, professional accreditation goes: you have alike from the American Veterinary Medical Association, they have a council on education. The medical profession has a council on education, the engineers have a council on education, but that council on education determinesthey do the accreditation for the various schools. The accreditation is based on a self evaluation, so in other words, they let me set in on the4 AVMA stands for the American Veterinary Medical Association.5 USDA stands for the United States Department of Agriculture. _____________________________________________________________MT= Merrill Townley; RR= Rebecca Rose 19accreditation when we were about tothe University of Missouri was about to lose its accreditation for a number of reasons andso then the council on education came to the school to do a site visit and they allowed me to sit in with them because I was in the legislature and we had to dig up the money to do what needed toto keep the accreditation. Well, a lot of the things that these councils on education require are more academic than they are re

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